Belize is a small country in Central America, south of Mexico and east of Guatemala. Belize has a long coastline on the Caribbean Sea, and is on the eastern side of the Yucatan Peninsula. The latitude and longitude of Belize is 17° 15′ North and 88° 45′ West and is situated on the narrow isthmus of land that connects North America and South America.
To the north of Belize is the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, sharing a border with the Mexican town of Chetumal City. To the west of Belize is the northernmost department (state) of El Peten in Guatemala. The southern tip of Belize shares a border with the Guatemalan department (state) of Izabal.
By air, travelers in the United States can reach Belize from Miami, Florida, Houston, Texas, or Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas in about two hours. Flights from Charlotte, North Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia average about three and a half hours.
From a starting point in Central America, it takes a full day to drive from Guatemala City to reach most points in Belize. Passenger boats departing from the city of Puerto Barrios in the Izabal Department (state) in northern Guatemala can reach Belize in approximately 30 minutes. By air, Belize is connected to the cities of Merida and Cancun in Mexico, San Salvador in El Salvador, Flores Pdten (near the famous Mayan ruins of Tikal) in Guatemala, and the city of San Pedro Sula in Honduras.
Belize has a long coastline stretching for 386 kilometers (240 miles) facing the Caribbean Sea. Just offshore of Belize is the Belize Barrier Reef, the second biggest coral reef in the world, and the largest in the Western Hemisphere.
Belize has an area of 22,960 square kilometers (8,867 square miles), slightly bigger than either the nation of El Salvador or the state of Massachusetts, or twice as big as Jamaica. With numerous lagoons and lakes, the total land surface of Belize is actually 21,400 square kilometers (8,300 square miles).
Belize is shaped approximately like a rectangle, stretching 280 km (170 miles) north to south, but just 100 kilometers (62 miles) from east to west, with a combined frontier measuring 516 kilometers (321 miles). Inside Belize are two major rivers, the Sarstoon River and the Hondo River, which define the northern and southern boundaries. The western border of Belize with Guatemala is an artificial line drawn straight north and south, a legacy of the colonial era when the region was under British administration. The western border with Guatemala is known as the “Adjacency Line”, and is officially administered by the Organization of American States (OAS).
Inside Belize, the northern part of the country consists of a combination of flat wetlands merging towards coastal plains, with abundant forests found throughout. The south of Belize forms the lower slopes of the Maya Mountain range. The highest point in Belize is known as Doyle’s Delight, and has an altitude of 1,124 meters (3,688 feet).
Abundant coral reefs form much of the coastline of Belize, along with approximately 450 small islands known locally known as “cayes”. Pronounced “keys”, the cayes total about 690 square kilometers (270 square miles) of surface, and abut the Belize Barrier Reef, which measures 320 kilometers (200 miles) from north to south. Three out of four coral atolls located in the Western Hemisphere are found off the waters of Belize. One special unique feature, the Great Blue Hole, is also found off the coast of Belize.